Frequently asked questions


How do you determine the purity of fullerene derivatives?

The purity of our fullerene derivatives is generally determined by HPLC and 1H NMR analysis. In this way, we check for the purity of the fullerene compound (HPLC), for the correct structure (NMR and HPLC) and for residual solvent residues (NMR).

For our products, we have strict rules regarding their purity, and how it is to be measured. The analytical data of a specific compound/batch are always available upon request.

Why is the color of my PCBM different from that of a previous batch?

This is a normal phenomenom, and nothing to worry about. The color of solid fullerene derivatives sometimes varies, because of small differences between batches in for example the particle size and powder density. As a result, the color of the powders can vary between brown and black.

Do you have fullerene derivatives with a different LUMO level than PCBM?

Yes, we do. There are several derivatives available that have LUMO and HOMO levels above that of PCBM. Examples are [60]IPH, bis[60]PCBM, and ICBA. Derivatives with LUMO and HOMO levels below that of PCBM are quite rare, but one possibility is KLOC-6.